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types and processing characteristics of 2022卡塔尔世界杯正赛 molds

die refers to the tool that turns the blank into a part with a specific shape and size under the action of external force. it is widely used in blanking, die forging, cold heading, extrusion, powder metallurgy part pressing, pressure casting, and engineering plastics and rubber , ceramics and other products in the compression molding or injection molding processing. the mold has a specific contour or inner cavity shape, and the contour shape with a cutting edge can be used to separate the blank according to the contour shape (punching). the application of the cavity shape can make the blank obtain the corresponding three-dimensional shape. the mold generally includes two parts: a movable mold and a fixed mold (or a convex mold and a concave mold), which can be separated or combined. the parts are taken out when separated, and the blanks are injected into the mold cavity to form when closed. the mold is a precision tool with a complex shape and can withstand the expansion force of the blank. it has high requirements for structural strength, rigidity, surface hardness, surface roughness and processing accuracy. the development level of mold production is one of the important signs of the level of mechanical manufacturing. there are many types of molds, which can be divided into: ① metal processing molds, which is what i usually call metal molds; ② processing non-metal and powder metallurgy molds.

2022卡塔尔世界杯正赛 molds are divided into: including stamping dies (such as punching dies, bending dies, deep drawing dies, turning dies, shrinkage dies, undulating dies, bulging dies, shaping dies, etc.), forging dies (such as forging dies, upsetting die, etc.), extrusion die, extrusion die, die-casting die, forging die, etc.;

non-metal molds are also divided into: plastic molds and inorganic non-metal molds. according to the different materials of the mold itself, the mold can be divided into: sand mold, metal mold, vacuum mold, paraffin mold and so on. among them, with the rapid development of polymer plastics, plastic molds are closely related to people's lives. plastic molds can generally be divided into: injection molding molds, extrusion molding molds, gas-assisted molding molds and so on.

in addition to various types of molds, mold processing also has the following characteristics:

1. high processing accuracy requirements: a pair of molds is generally composed of a concave mold, a convex mold and a mold base, and some may also be a multi-piece split module. therefore, the combination of upper and lower molds, the combination of inserts and cavities, and the assembly of modules require high machining accuracy. the dimensional accuracy of precision molds often reaches the μm level.

2. complex shape: some products, such as car covers, aircraft parts, toys, and household appliances, have a surface that is composed of multiple curved surfaces. therefore, the mold cavity surface is very complicated. some curved surfaces must be processed by mathematical calculation methods.

3. small batch: the production of molds is not mass production, and in many cases only one pair is produced.

4. multiple procedures: milling, boring, drilling, reaming and tapping are always used in mold processing.

5. repeated production: the use of molds has a long life. when the use of a pair of molds exceeds its life, a new mold must be replaced, so mold production is often repetitive.

6. profiling processing: sometimes there is neither pattern nor data in mold production, and profiling processing must be carried out according to the actual object. this requires high imitation accuracy and no deformation.

7. excellent mold material and high hardness: the main material of the mold is mostly made of high-quality alloy steel, especially the long-life mold, which is often made of ledeburite steel such as crl2 and crwmn. this kind of steel has strict requirements from rough forging, processing to heat treatment. therefore, the preparation of processing technology cannot be ignored, and heat treatment deformation is also a problem that needs to be taken seriously in processing.